IP Archives of Cytology and Histopathology Research

Environmental Pollution and Cytological changes in sputum samples taken from individuals living in the countryside and industrial area in Sudan

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Author Details: Magdi Mansour Salih., Amal Mutasim EI Raid, Abdulla Hasab. EI Nabi

Volume : 2

Issue : 4

Online ISSN : 2456-9267

Print ISSN : 2581-5725

Article First Page : 85

Article End Page : 89


Introduction: Exposure to polluted air is a significant cause of health problems and lung disease. In Sudan, biomass fuel constitutes more than 80% of the total primary energy supply. Exfoliative sputum cytology provides useful information on pulmonary disorders.
Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the cytological changes in sputum samples taken from individuals living in the countryside and in an industrial area.
Materials & Method: This is a case control descriptive study. The participants lived in an industrial area and village. Two hundred adults 15 years agreed to participate in this study. Half lived and worked in an industrial area. The other 100 rural participants, native subsistence farmers from village, served as controls.
Results: According to the sputum cytology examination, 7 (3.5%) of the total sputum samples were reported as unsatisfactory. However most of the population153 (76.5%) that were cytological normal 36 (18 %) found to have inflammatory condition. 4 (2%) showed dyskaryosis. Separately, the results of 82 participants (82%) in the control group appeared normal and one individual (1%) showed dyskaryosis. in case 71(71%) normal and three (3%) dyskaryosis. There were no significant differences between the two groups in term of cytopathology finding.
Conclusions: Air pollution has a negative impact on respiratory tract and may lead to cytological changes. Sputum detection methods have the advantage of being the only noninvasive method that can detect cellular atypical changes. Sputum cytological examination combined with other screening examinations may play an important role in the early detection of lung cancer.

Keyword: Sputum, Cytopathology, Air Pollution.