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Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology

Analysis of various risk factors in the development of retinopathy of prematurity in semi urban population

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Author Details: Sangamithira Mathiyalagan, Helen Rosita

Volume : 3

Issue : 3

Online ISSN : 2395-1451

Print ISSN : 2395-1443

Article First Page : 365

Article End Page : 368


Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disease of the eye that generally affects premature babies receiving intensive neonatal care. It is thought to be due to disorganized growth of retinal blood vessels which results in scarring and retinal detachment. Mild ROP resolves spontaneously but serious cases may lead to blindness. All preterm babies are at risk for ROP, and very low birth weight is an additional risk factor. Development of ROP is contributed to by both oxygen toxicity and relative hypoxia.
Aim: To determine the frequency of occurrence of retinopathy of prematurity and to determine possible risk factors that contribute to the development of retinopathy of prematurity in a study population of preterm babies drawn from a semiurban population.
Materials and Methods: Prospective one year study, with 102 babies who satisfied the inclusion criteria were subjected to complete fundus examination with indirect ophthalmoscope and followed up till 45 week of post conceptionl age.
Results: The prevalence of ROP was calculated to be 36.2% in the current study. Early preterm babies (85.7%, p=0.0002), extremely low birth weight babies (100%, p=0.00003), respiratory distress syndrome (44.3%, p=0.004), blood transfusion to babies (71.4%, p=0.002), oxygen therapy through continuous positive airway pressure (90.9%, p=0.003) and oxygen therapy through ventilator (100%, p=0.0001) were emerged as independent risk factors for the development of ROP.
Conclusion: In India, ROP is emerging as a leading cause of preventable childhood blindness. The word ‘preventable’ suggests that there exists an effective treatment which helps to prevent disease progression. Timely screening and early management is the key for the management of ROP.

Blindness, Gestational age, Low birth weight, Retinopathy of prematurity, Screening