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Year 2019

Volume: 5 , Issue: 2

Print ISSN:-2581-4753

Online ISSN:-2581-4761

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IP International Journal of Medical Microbiology and Tropical Diseases


A study on epidemiological and clinical profile of victims of snake bite admitted to Teaching Hospital Jaffna, Sri Lanka


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Author Details: Sivaranjany Ravichandren, Kumanan Thirunavukarasu

Volume : 2

Issue : 4

Online ISSN : 2581-4761

Print ISSN : 2581-4753

Article First Page : 118

Article End Page : 124


Abstract

Snake bite is one of the major health, environmental and occupational hazard in Northern Province of Sri Lanka with significant morbidity and mortality. This study is a non-interventional prospective descriptive study. The objective was to study the snake bite victims admitted to Teaching hospital Jaffna over 6 months period and specifically to know about the demography, epidemiology and clinical profile as well as the response to treatment; side effect and outcome of snake bite. Among 132 snake bite victims, 56.1% (74 patients) were males and 43.9% (58) were females. Main age group affected was of 21- 30 years. Farming was the main occupational hazard and majority of the female victims were housewives. Day and night bites were equal and 85% (112) was outdoor bites. Valikamam area documented highest number of cases (57). 28.8% of snakebite victims were bitten by Saw-scaled viper, 16.6% by Russels, 6.1% by Krait, 3% by Cobra and 0.8% by hump nosed viper. Non venomous bites represents 20.5%. 32 patients (24.2%) were admitted with unidentified snake bite and couldn’t differentiate them as they didn’t bring the snakes and in the absence of systemic manifestations. All victims had local effects at site of bite. Haematological and nervous system effects were observed in >80% of Russell’s victims. Saw-scaled viper had predominantly hematological effect. Krait bite showed neurological and gastro intestinal effects. Cobra bite lead to haematoloical and nervous system complications and the local effects were more severe. More than 80% of patients required 3 days of hospital stay and 5% of required Intensive Unit care. Tetanus toxoid was given to all. 55 patients received Anti snake venom (ASV) and 5 of them (9.1%) developed reactions to ASV. Outcome was one death due to Russell’s viper envenomation, 56% no envenomation, 43% complete recovery and no residual disability.

Keywords:
Clinical Profile, Epidemiology, Snake Bite, Sri Lanka, ASV