Indian Journal of Microbiology Research


Melioidosis: An emerging infection in India


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Author Details: Sathya Bhama MC, Saritha N, Jyothi R

Volume : 4

Issue : 2

Online ISSN : 2394-5478

Print ISSN : 2394-546X

Article First Page : 190

Article End Page : 193


Abstract

Introduction: Melioidosis is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei which is endemic in South East Asia. Lack of proper microbiological services in many countries results in under-reporting of cases and the global burden of infection remains underestimated. This is a study to analyse the clinical presentation and risk factors for melioidosis in India.
Materials and Method: A retrospective study was carried out on ten culture proven cases of melioidosis in a tertiary care hospital in South India between January 2009 and December 2014.
Result: Ten cases were studied in five years of which nine were males. They had varying clinical presentations like loss of weight and loss of appetite(10%), fever(60%), headache(10%), abdominal pain(20%), joint pain(10%), weakness of limbs(10%), swelling of thigh(20%) and faecal and urinary incontinence((10%). The risk factors included diabetes mellitus (100%), alcohol consumption(90%)and tuberculosis(30%). All the isolates were sensitive to Ceftazidime, Piperacillin-tazobactam, Imipenem, Cotrimoxazole, Amoxycillin-clavulanate and Meropenem while only 80% were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin. Of the 10 cases, two expired and the rest responded to treatment.
Conclusion: Melioidosis is an emerging infection in India especially in males and diabetes and alcoholism are identified as the commonest risk factors. Control of the disease requires close monitoring, improved clinical laboratory standards and aggressive therapy.

Keywords:
Melioidosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Diabetes mellitus, Fever, Alcoholism, Ceftazidime