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Indian Journal of Microbiology Research


A REVIEW ON STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS WITH ITS DISEASES DENTAL CARIES, DENTAL PLAQUE AND ENDOCARDITIS


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Author Details: Said Mohamed Daboor, Farheen Syed Syed Masood, Marwa Salm Al-Azab, Elbagir Elhassan Nori

Volume : 2

Issue : 2

Online ISSN : 2394-5478

Print ISSN : 2394-546X

Article First Page : 76

Article End Page : 82



Abstract

Microorganisms present in our oral cavity which are called the human micro flora attach to our tooth surfaces and develop biofilms. In maximum organic habitats microorganisms generally prevail as multispecies biolfilms with the help of intercellular interactions and communications among them which are the main keys for their endurance. These biofilms are formed by initial attachment of bacteria to a surface, development of a multi –dimensional complex structure and detachment to progress other site. The best example of biofilm formation is dental plaque. Plaque formation can lead to dental caries and other associated diseases causing tooth loss. Many different bacteria are involved in these processes and one among them is Streptococcus mutans which is the principle and the most important agent. When these infections become severe, during the treatment the bacterium can enter the bloodstream from the oral cavity and cause endocarditis. The oral bacterium S. mutans is greatly skilled in its mechanical modes of carbohydrate absorption. It also synthesizes polysaccharides that are present in dental plaque causing caries. As dental caries is a preventable disease major distinct approaches for its prevention are: carbohydrate diet, sugar substitutes, mechanical cleaning techniques, use of fluorides, antimicrobial agents, fissure sealants, vaccines, probiotics, replacement theory and dairy products and at the same time for tooth remineralization fluorides and casein phosphopeptides are extensively employed. The aim of this review article is to put forth the general features of the bacterium S.mutans and how it is involved in certain diseases like: dental plaque, dental caries and endocarditis.


Key Words: Streptococcus mutans, Biofilm, Dental Caries, Plaque, Endocarditis