Indian Journal of Microbiology Research

Prevalence and drug resistance pattern of Citrobacter sps – A retrospective study

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Article Type : Research Article

Author Details: Sodani Sadhna,Ranjana Hawaldar*

Volume : 6

Issue : 2

Online ISSN : 2394-5478

Print ISSN : 2394-546X

Article First Page : 142

Article End Page : 145


Introduction: Citrobacter are motile, straight, gram negative bacilli and are facultative anaerobes. Nosocomial infections by Citrobacter account for about 3-6% of all infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae. Urinary tract infections are the most common infection caused by Citrobacter sps. followed by infections of GI tract, skin and soft tissues and pneumonia. The present study was conducted in the microbiology department of our diagnostic centre between July to December 2018 with the aim of studying the prevalence of Citobacter infections in our clinical setting and also to study its antibiotic sensitivity pattern.
Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study carried out in Microbiology department of our diagnostic centre between July to December 2018.A total of 3758 patients of both sexes registered for culture and sensitivity testing were included in the study. Samples were collected by following thorough aseptic techniques in sterile containers/swabs and were plated on 5% sheep blood agar and Maconkey agar and incubated at 37O C for 18-24 hours. Isolated organism was identified by Gram’s stain and colony morphology and further by biochemical tests. Antibiotic sensitivity was done on Vitec II (Biomerieux).
Results: Out of 3758 clinical specimens received in the laboratory for culture and sensitivity, bacterial growth was observed in 1226(32.6%) specimens. Growth of Citrobacter sps was observed in 1.22% (15/1226) of all positive cultures. Citrobacter was isolated in 12(2.19%) urine cultures, and one each in blood pus and vaginal swab. In urinary isolates, Nalidixic acid was resistant and intermediate sensitivity to Ciprofloxacin. In blood and vaginal swab, Citrobacter showed sensitivity to Piperacillin/ Tazobactum, Cefoperazone/ Sulbactum, Ertapenen, Meropenem and Imipenem, Amikacin, Gentamycin, Tigecycline, Nitrofurantoin and Colistin. In pus, sensitivity was observed to Piperacillin/Tazobactumand Colistin only while all other antibiotics were resistant.
Conclusion: Citrobacter sps is emerging as an opportunistic pathogen especially in immunocompromised patients and in hospital settings with resistance to multiple drugs. Thorough aseptic precautions by hospital staff and proper surveillance measures will help in preventing emergence of multidrug resistant strains of Citrobacter sps.

Keywords: Citrobacter, Multi drug resistance, Nosocomial infection.

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