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International Journal of Oral Health Dentistry


Evaluation of Oral Mucosal Cells in Patients with type 2 Diabetes by Exfoliative Cytology Method


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Author Details: Saritha Maloth, Archana Mukunda, Padmashree S

Volume : 3

Issue : 1

Online ISSN : 2395-499X

Print ISSN : 2395-4914

Article First Page : 34

Article End Page : 37


Abstract

Background: Exfoliative cytology is a simple, non-invasive clinical technique which can be used to determine the morphology and cytomorphometric changes in exfoliated cells. Studies on oral mucosal cells of type II diabetes have shown qualitative and quantitative cellular changes compared to that of normal healthy individuals.
Aims: To evaluate alterations in the morphology and cytomorphometry of oral cells in type 2 diabetics and healthy individuals using exfoliative cytology technique.
Materials and Methods: Smears from scrapings of clinically healthy oral mucosa (buccal mucosa and tongue) of 25 type 2 diabetics and 25 healthy controls were stained by Papanicolaou staining method and were observed under microscope for cytomorphological assessments. In each slide, the cytoplasmic area (CA), nuclear area (NA) and cytoplasmic area to nuclear area ratio (CA:NA) of 50 cells were measured. The data was statistically analysed. The p value was calculated using student ‘t’ test.
Results: Out of 25 diabetics patients 9 (36%) were males and 16% were females and were found to be in the age range of 30-80yrs. The cytoplasmic area of the cells from diabetic patients was reduced in comparison to the normal patients and was statistically significant with a p value of less than 0.001. Exfoliated cells from diabetic patients showed an increase in the nuclear area in comparison to the normal with a p value of 0.001 which is statistically significant. The nuclear cytoplasmic ratio of cells of diabetic patients was increased in comparison to the normal cells and was found to be statistically significant with p value of 0.001. In 25 cases of diabetic smears obtained 14 cases were from buccal mucosa and 11 cases from tongue. However, we found no statistical significant difference in the cytoplamsic area, nuclear area and nuclear cytoplasmic ratio between the two sites.
Conclusion: Exfoliated cells reveal definitive morphological changes which can be assessed morphometrically. Exfoliative cytology can be a reliable tool to aid in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.

Keywords:
Cytomorphometry, Diabetes Mellitus, Oral Mucosa, Exfoliative Cytology