Indian Journal of Pathology and Oncology

A study of Ki 67 immunostaining in breast carcinomas: Correlation with histopathological prognostic factors

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Author Details: Shetageri Shruthi Neelakanth, Satish Suchitha, Vimalambika Gubbanna Manjunath

Volume : 4

Issue : 1

Online ISSN : 2394-6792

Print ISSN : 2394-6784

Article First Page : 98

Article End Page : 102


Background: One of the most common causes of carcinoma deaths among women is breast cancer. In view of the above, early diagnosis and effective treatment of the disease are immensely important. The increasing number of options for the treatment of breast cancer has made the prognostic evaluation of the disease even more important. Proliferation plays an important role in the clinical behaviour of invasive breast cancer. Ki 67 binding, is an objective measurement of cell proliferation which significantly aids in the management of the breast cancer patients.


1.        To study the proliferative activity using Ki 67 immunostaining in breast carcinoma.

2.        To assess the relationship of Ki 67 scores with size, histological grade and lymph node status.                    

Methods: Seventy five cases of histologically proven breast carcinomas were studied. Histopathological grade was assessed using Bloom and Richardson’s method, modified by Elston and Ellis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for Ki 67 was done on paraffin embedded wax sections.
Results: Ki 67 was positive in 73/75 cases (97.33%). The range of Ki 67 score was 0 to 90%. Mean value of Ki 67 was 31.86% and median was 30%. A statistically significant correlation was observed between size (P=0.037), grade (P < 0.0001) and Nottingham Prognostic Index (P < 0.0001) with Ki 67 scores.
No statistically significant correlation was seen with lymph node status (P=0.767), lymphovascular invasion, necrosis, presence of desmoplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), nipple and areola involvement.
Conclusion: Proliferation has been recognized as a distinct hallmark of cancer and acts as an important determinant of cancer outcome. As Ki 67 can be used to objectively measure this, it can be included in the pool of prognostic markers like tumor size, nodal status, histopathological grade and hormonal receptors.

Keywords: Breast Carcinoma, Ki 67, Size, Grade, Lymph node status