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Santosh University Journal of Health Sciences


Epidemiology of typhoid and it's vaccination therapy


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Author Details: N. K. Mishra

Volume : 3

Issue : 2

Online ISSN : 2455-1732

Print ISSN :

Article First Page : 45

Article End Page : 47


Abstract

Typhoid (enteric) fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The burden of typhoid fever shows substantial variation within as well as between countries. Commonly identified risk-factors include a lack of clean drinking water, poor sanitation, inadequate hygiene practices and low socio-economic status. The incubation period is 1 to 14 days. Symptoms include: high fever, rash, weakness, constipation or diarrhoea, abdominal pain, vomiting, headaches, poor appetite. Antibiotic resistance is the major problem in order to treat effectively. The development of potent vaccine candidate for typhoid fever is a need of the hour. The prevention is made through Vi-polysaccharide conjugate typhoid vaccine and Ty21 (live typhoid) vaccination. Further supportive measures like appropriate food handling, washing hands with soap before preparing or eating food, proper sanitation contributes to reducing the risk of transmission.

Keywords: Conjugate typhoid vaccine, High fever, S. Typhi, Ty21