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International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research


Diet and lifestyle of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome in South India


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Author Details: Doddappa Mallappa Bannigida,Shivananda Nayak B*,Surapaneni Krishna Mohan

Volume : 6

Issue : 1

Online ISSN : 2394-6377

Print ISSN : 2394-6369

Article First Page : 29

Article End Page : 31


Abstract

Introduction: Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) affects 4-18% of reproductive women worldwide. It is observed to have associations with metabolic syndromes, psychological mentality and reproductive organs in women. Diet and lifestyle play an important role in the development of PCOS and their modification remain the first line of treatment.

Objective: To compare dietary and life style pattern in obese and non-obese women with PCOS and their respective controls.

Materials and Methods: Case control study comprising of 100 women with PCOS (50 obese and 50 non obese) and 100 women without PCOS (50 obese and 50 non obese) was conducted at Koppal, India from July 2015 to March 2018.

Results: Physical activity was decreased due to watching television and mobile addiction in obese and non-obese women with PCOS irrespective of BMI (p<0 xss=removed p=0.001), xss=removed xss=removed xss=removed p=0.21) p=0.32)>

Conclusion: Our findings concluded that lack of exercise; sedentary life style and unhealthy diets are the main characteristic features in women with PCOS irrespective of BMI.

Keywords: Polycystic ovarian syndrome, Life style and diet.

Introduction

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder of women in reproductive age affecting 4-18% and the most frequent cause of hyperandrogenism. Its complex pathogenesis involves: a) hypothalamic-pituitary gonadotropin secretion abnormality, b) impaired ovary steroidogenesis. c) Insulin resistance (IR).[1]

Lifestyle is closely related to physical and mental health of people, and is effective in onset or development of many diseases including PCOS. Although obesity has not been mentioned as a diagnostic criterion, it is a major factor in incidence and intensity of the PCOS. Obesity aggravates the clinical presentation of the disease in terms of both fertility and metabolism.[2]women with PCOS have shown 30-40% progression to type 2 diabetes (T2D), adipose tissue dysfunction, abnormalities in lipid metabolism and body fat distribution.[3] There is no definite treatment, hence women with PCOS are treated on signs and symptoms. The most common medication include oral contraceptives (OCPs), antiandrogen topical medication and gonadotropins.[4] Low fat, hypo-caloric-dash diet and exercise has shown a 5% improvement in women with PCOS with reduction of IR, triglycerides and VLDL.[5][6]

Abnormal glucose metabolism, hyperandrogenism and ovulation significantly improves with weight loss. exercise regardless of weight loss reduces insulin resistance.[7]

Materials and Methods

This was a case-control study conducted at Koppal Institute of Medical Science, Koppal, India from July 2015 to March 2018. Study comprised 100 women with PCOS (50- obese and 50 non-obese) and 100without PCOS (controls, 50- Obese and 50 non Obese) in the age group of 18-40 years. Obese had a BMI >25 and non-obese had BMI <25>3000 MET).[8]

Statistical Analysis

The mean of the data were compared using paired sample T-test and Chi-square testing from the IBM SPSS Statistics Data Editor Version 21. Categorical data were expressed as percentage and continous data were expressed as their mean and standard deviation.

Results

Our study showed that BMI and waist circumference of obese and non-obese women with PCOS were more when compared to obese and non-obese women without PCOS (p<0>

Women with PCOS consumed significantly more baked items (p=<0 p=0.001), xss=removed xss=removed xss=removed p=0.21) p=0.32)>

Table 1: Characteristics in obese and non-obese women with PCOS and controls

 

Non –obese

 

Obese

 

Characteristics

Cases

Control

P Value

Cases

Control

P Value

BMI (kg/m2)

25.6±2.53

21.2±4.86

<0>

35.7±3.05

32.2±4.39

<0>

Waist circumference (cm)

95.25±2.01

94.51 ± 2.40

<0>

105.02±7.10

102.58±8.1

<0>

Physical activity (MET)

1809.50± 229.19

2016.8± 197.88

<0>

 

350.10±30.25

550.30±25.36

<0>

Watching Television (%)

65±18

50±12

<0>

90±10

80±05

0.001

Mobile addiction (%)

68±12

55±18

<0>

92±08

85±07

0.001

Table 2: Food consumed in obese and non-obese women with PCOS and controls

Foods consumed

> twice a week

Non –obese

Mean± SD

 

Obese

Mean± SD

 

 

Cases

Control

P Value

Cases

Control

P Value

Cakes

0.74 ± 0.23

0.59 ± 0.12

<0>

0.94 ± 0.50

0.86 ± 0.12

<0>

Ice cream

0.45 ± 0.50

0.44 ± 0.21

<0>

0.82 ± 0.30

0.81 ± 0.23

<0>

Tea

0.64 ± 0.40

0.63± 0.61

<0>

0.87 ± 0.20

0.86 ± 0.72

<0>

Lack of Fruits and nuts

0.53± 0.05

0.64 ± 0.40

<0>

0.46 ± 0.60

0.54 ± 0.73

<0>

Soft drinks

0.78 ± 0.03

0.60 ± 0.67

<0>

0.94 ± 0.05

0.82± 0.46

<0>

Fast food

(Panipuri)

0.58 ± 0.15

0.55 ± 0.22

<0>

0.90 ± 0.15

0.88 ± 0.52

<0>

Mirchi Bhagi, chips

(Fried items)

0.60 ± 0.14

0.57 ± 0.51

<0>

0.95 ± 0.14

0.92± 0.51

<0>

Discussion

We observed that women with PCOS lack physical exercise due to sedentary life style than healthy women. Similar observations were made by Eleftheriadou et al[9]irrespective of BMI. On the contrary Moran et al.[10] in his study did not report a significant difference.

Nutritional habits are important factors in lifestyle affecting physical health.[11]In our study there was a significantly different in consumption of different food items like cakes (baked items), fast foods, fried items, soft drinks and lack of fruits and nuts. Similar findings were observed by Mohammed S et al.[12]Studies have shown increased risk of infertility with consumption of animal proteins, complete carbohydrates, foods with high glycemic index, low fat dairy, greasy foods and sodas.[13] Consumption of fruits and nuts reduce insulin resistance reported higher
calorie intake and fat intake in women with PCOS.
[14][15][16]The results of these studies are consistent with that of ours.

This is a significant finding as the foods craved for and consumed daily by women have attached metabolic signals, psychological distress, and menstrual disturbances as studies have shown the possible link of dairy foods affecting ovulatory functions Chavarro et al.[17]

Studies have shown that lifestyle modification and appropriate diet habits are 1st line treatment in women with PCOS.[13][18][19]Given the fact that in most studies, signs and symptoms improved after changing their diet and life style, it is necessary to provide them with consultation and educational services regarding appropriate nutrition. Physicians must highlight the importance of grains, vegetables and fruits as prevention to chronic disease [ACAM WJ Leaders.].[20]

Conclusion

Our findings conclude that lack of exercise and unhealthy diets are important characteristic features in women with PCOS and remain the first line of treatment.

Limitations of Study

Due to loss of follow up we could not compare their outcome after modification of diet and life style.

Conflicts of Interest: None

References

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