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IP Journal of Paediatrics and Nursing Science


An exploratory study to assess the prevalence and degree of malnutrition among under five children


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Author Details: Arun Kumar Jindal*,Tajinder Kaur,Ravinder Kaur

Volume : 2

Issue : 1

Online ISSN : 2582-4031

Print ISSN : 2582-4023

Article First Page : 1

Article End Page : 4


Abstract

Abstract

An exploratory study was conducted to assess the prevalence and degree of malnutrition among under five
children in slum area. Lack of basic amenities like safe drinking water, proper housing, drainage and excreta
disposal make this population more vulnerable to infections which further compromises the nutrition of those who
are living in the slums. Under five children of slum area was selected through convenient sampling technique.
Measurement of weight by using the weighing scale was done. The value of weight were compared with growth
chart (Indian academy of pediatrics) to find out degree of malnutrition. Analysis was done by using percentage,
mean, standard deviation and‘t’ test. Result reveals that total 47% children found to be malnourished in which
22% children suffered with 1st degree malnutrition, 18% children with 2nd degree malnutrition, 5% children with 3rd degree malnutrition and 2% with 4th degree malnutrition.

Keywords: Slums, Malnutrition, Degree, Under Five Children.

Objectives

  1. To assess the prevalence and degree of malnutrition among children.
  2. To assess the degree of malnutrition among children with selected variables.
  3. To find the relationship of degree of malnutrition with selected variables
  4. To prepare a pamphlet on nutritional diet.

Materials and Methods

An exploratory research approach were selected to conduct study on prevalence and degree of malnutrition among children at slum area, sunder Nagar, Hoshiarpur (Punjab) by using convenient sampling technique. The target population was under five children. The sample size was 100 children. Data was collected by using the weighing scale.

Tool for Data Collection

Section 1

it Consist of demographic data which include variables such as age, family income, no. of siblings, type of family, type of diet, father’s education, mother’s education.

Section 2

It contains measurements of weight of children under five years by using weighing scale. The values of weight of children were compared with growth chart (Indian Academy of Pediatrics) to find out degree of malnutrition.

Criterian Measurement

Classification according to indian academy of pediatrics.

The growth chart recommended by Indian Academy of pediatrics shows four degree of malnutrition Normal  >80

1st degree (grade 1) 70-80

2nd degree (grade 2) 60-70

3rd degree (grade 3) 50-60

4th degree (grade 4) <50>

Data Collection Procedure

A standardized tool was used to collect data to assess the prevalence and degree of malnutrition. Tool is recommended by Indian Academy of Pediatrics road to health chart in which weight was checked.

Before commencing the task of data collection written permission was obtained from selected hospitals. Purpose of the study was discussed with officials. With the help of health workers appointed by hospitals, the survey was conducted in the slum area. Door to Door survey was carried over. During the survey the children under five years of age were selected for the study by using convenient sampling technique. The data was collected by measuring the weight of children by weighing scale.

Data Analysis

The analyzed data was organized according to the objective and presented under the following heading

Section 1

This section consist of demographic data

Section 2

It contains measurements of weight of children under five years by using weighing scale. The values of weight of children were compared with growth chart (Indian Academy of Pediatrics) to find out degree of malnutrition.

Percentage Distribution of Sample Characteristics

Table 1: Frequency and percentage distribution N=100

Characteristics

Frequency

Percentage

Age(years)

0-1

1.1-2

2.1-3

3.1-4

4.1-5

 

17

28

21

16

18

 

17

28

21

16

18

Sex

Male

Female

 

60

40

 

60

40

Family Income (Monthly)

501-1000

1001-1500

1501-2000

2001-2500

2501-3000

 

2

53

33

6

6

 

2

53

33

6

6

No. of siblings

One

Two

Three

Four

 

18

29

24

29

 

18

29

24

29

Type of Family

Nuclear

Joint

 

15

85

 

15

85

Type of Diet

Vegetarian

Non vegetarian

 

26

74

 

26

74

Father’s Education

Primary

Middle

Matric

10+2 & above

 

52

35

10

3

 

52

35

10

3

Mother’s Education

Primary

Middle

Matric

10+2 & above

 

80

13

5

2

 

80

13

5

2

Prevalence and degree of malnutrition among children

Table 2: Percentage distribution of degree of malnutrition among children N=100

 

Prevalence

1st Degree

2nd Degree

3rd Degree

4th Degree

Total

N%

N%

N%

N%

N%

100

47 47

22 47

18 38

5 11

2 4.0

 

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Fig. 1: Prevalence and degree of malnutrition among children

Results
Result reveals that total 47% children found to be malnourished in which 22% children suffered with 1st degree malnutrition, 18% children with 2nd degree malnutrition, 5% children with 3rd degree malnutrition and 2% with 4th degree malnutrition.

Majority of male children were suffered with malnutrition, there number was 27, 25.9% were suffered with 2nd degree malnutrition and 18.5% with 3rd degree and 7.40%were suffered with 4th degree of malnutrition. 20 female children were suffered with malnutrition, 45% were suffered with 1st degree, 55% were suffered with 2nd degree and no female child was suffered with 3rd and 4th degree if malnutrition

The families whose family income was between1001-2000 they have 14% of 1st degree, 66% of 2nd degree, 60% of 3rd degree and 1% of 4th degree children were suffered with malnutrition.

The children who have two siblings majority of them suffered with malnutrition. Their percentage were 36.3% of 1st degree, 28%were suffered with 2nd degree, 80% with 3rd degree and 1% with 4th degree malnutrition

The children who belongs to joint families, most of them were suffered with malnutrition. Their percentage was95.5% with 1st degree, 94.5% with 2nd degree, 80% with 3rd degree, 50% with 4th degree of malnutrition.

Most of non-vegetarian children were suffered with the malnutrition. 77.3% were suffered with 1st degree, 72% suffered with 2nd degree, 60% suffered with 3rd degree and 1% suffered with 4th degree of malnutrition.

The highest mean score in the age group was 12.5 and least mean score was 2.99. The degree of malnutrition which was highly significant at P<0>rd and 4th degree of malnutrition. It depicts that there is impact of age on the malnutrition.

The highest mean score in the sex was 10.42 and least mean score was 2.45. The degree of malnutrition was significant at P<0>

The highest mean score of the family income was 11.16 and lowest mean score was 2.45. The degree of malnutrition was highly significant at P< 0>

The highest mean score in the number of sibling was 11.5 and least mean score was 2.45. The degree of malnutrition was highly significant at P<0>

The highest mean score in type of family was 10.49 and least mean score was 1.9. The degree of malnutrition was significant at P<0>

The highest mean score in type of diet was 10.8 and least mean score was 2.45. The degree of malnutrition was non –significant in both vegetarian and non-vegetarian. Therefore it shows that type of diet has no impact on degree of malnutrition.

The highest mean score of father’s education was 11 and lowest mean score was 1.9. The degree of malnutrition was highly significant at P<0>

The highest mean score of mother’s education was 13 and lowest mean score was 2.45. The degree of malnutrition was significant at P<0>

Discussion

The finding of the study have been discussed in accordance with the objective of the research. The analysis of data regarding the first objective reveals that out of 100 samples in the slum area under five years, 47 children are found to be malnourished. Under the second objective maximum male children i.e. 60 and 40% female children were suffered with malnutrition. Researcher have found that children belong to nuclear family, they have higher percentage of malnourished children in 3rd and 4th degree. According to family income the study showed that the families with income 1500-2000, they had more malnourished children than the other families. The child who had more than two siblings, they were suffered with malnutrition than the children who had one siblings. The study showed that the mother’s having lower standard of education, they have 80% malnourished children than the mother having education 10+2 and above. According to 3rd objective the study showed that the selection of different variables in the study.they had strongly impact on malnutrition. Especially age, sex, family income, no. of siblings, father’s education and mother’s education were directly proportion to degree of malnutrition.

Conflict of Interest: None.