COVID-19 Update - This is to inform you that the Government of India has announced a complete lockdown in India 22nd March 2020 to 14th April 2020. As a result, our offices will now be closed till 14th April 2020 and all our employees will be working from home. Office telephones will not be answered, and therefore you are requested to direct all your queries related to manuscript submission, review process, publication etc. at below mentioned details. editor@innovativepublication.com, rakesh.its@gmail.com, Mob. 8826373757, 8826859373, 9910947804


Print ISSN:-2581-5210

Online ISSN:-2581-5229

CODEN : IIJAAL

Current Issue

Year 2020

Volume: 5 , Issue: 4

  • Article highlights
  • Article tables
  • Article images

Article view: 77

Article download: 69

Sanju and Jain: Congenital Hearing Loss among Pre-term infants in North India


Introduction

Previous literature has reported newborn hearing screening as an effective way in early identification of hearing impairment in neonates and it should be carried out in neonatal care.2, 1 Previous researches has also showed the incident of congenital hearing loss is between 1 to 3 per 1000 healthy infants and 2 to 4 per 100 in high risk infant.3 Earlier literature has reported that the preterm birth is clearly linked with high risk of congenital hearing loss. Therefore, special attention must be given to pre-term infants to postnatal control of auditory function.3

Need for the study

Earlier literature has reported hearing impairment in high risk infants including preterm delivery, low birth weight, craniofacial malformations, low Apgar score, mechanical ventilation, ototoxic medications, bacterial meningitis, ICU for more than 7 days.8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3 A study done by Nikolic et al., in 2016 concluded that the prematurity being the earlier the risk of hearing impairment increases.9 They also reported that the high incidence and association of risk factors lead to almost twenty times the incidence of congenital hearing loss in the preterm babies.9  Kumar, Shah, Patel and Vishwakarma in 2015 reported that hearing loss was highly associated with Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) admission (72.7%) followed by Low Birth Weight (LBW) and hypoxia (54.5%) each.10 There is a dearth of literature regarding prevalence of hearing impairment in pre-term infants in Indian population. So, there is a need to study prevalence of hearing impairment in pre-term infants in Indian population.

Aim and Objective of the Study

The aim and objective of the study was to find out prevalence of hearing impairment in preterm infant in North India.

Materials and Methods

The current study includes 352 pre-term infants referred from pediatric tertiary hospitals. Data were collected from 5 different hospitals of northern India having full fledged ENT and audiology facilities. All the audiological evaluations were carried out by qualified and experienced audiologist with a minimum post graduate degree in audiology. Written consent were taken from the parents of all pre-term infants participated in the present study. A two stage hearing test was carried out. The first stage includes TEOAE (Transient Evoked Oto Acoustic Emissions) and the infant failed in TEOAE suppose to undergo second stage test i.e. ABR (Auditory Brainstem Response).

Results

In our study, from a total of 352 pre term infant, 55.96% (197 pre-term infants) passed in TEOAEs and 44.04 % (155pre-term infants) failed in TEOAEs test. Out of 155 pre-term infants who failed in first stage of screening, 57 failed (36.77%) in ABR test (second stage screening). The finding of present study showed that out of 352 pre term infant, 57(16.19%) pre term infants was having congenital hearing loss. The finding of present study is in consonance with previous literature.10 The present study also supports the notion of two stage hearing test procedure for newborn hearing screening program as the finding of present study clearly revealed that 44.03% pre-term infants failed in first stage of screening (TEOAEs), whereas hearing loss reported in 16.19% only.11

Conclusion

Finding of present study revealed that congenital hearing loss is more common in pre-term infants. Current study also showed that 16% preterm infant were having congenital hearing loss. TEOAE s and ABR screening of pre term infants is a clinically efficient approach for early identification hearing loss.

Source of Funding

None.

Conflict of Interest

None.

References

1 

A L Mehl V Thomson Newborn hearing screening: the great omissionPediatrics19981011E4

2 

C Ohl L Dornier C Czajka J C Chobaut L Tavernier Newborn hearing screening on infants at riskInt J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol2009731216911695

3 

K Wroblewska-Seniuk G Greczka P Dabrowski J Szyfter-Harris J Mazela Hearing impairment in premature newborns-Analysis based on the national hearing screening database in PolandPLoS ONE2017129e0184359

4 

S Coenraad A Goedegebure J B Van Goudoever L J Hoeve Risk factors for sensorineural hearing loss in NICU infants compared to normal hearing NICU controlsInt J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol20107499991002

5 

I Bielecki A Horbulewicz T Wolan Risk factors associated with hearing loss in infants: an analysis of 5282 referred neonatesInt J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol2011757925930

6 

Q J Wang Y L Zhao S Q Rao Newborn hearing concurrent gene screening can improve care for hearing loss: a study on 14,913 Chinese newbornsInt J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol2011754535542

7 

N Rai N Thakur Universal screening of newborns to detect hearing impairment--is it necessary?Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol201377610361041

8 

J Zhang P Wang B Han Newborn hearing concurrent genetic screening for hearing impairment-a clinical practice in 58,397 neonates in Tianjin, ChinaInt J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol2013771219291935

9 

M Nikolić G Sekulovi S Ostoji Uestalost faktora rizika za nastanak oteenja sluha kod prevremeno roene deceSpecijalna Edu Rehab2016152

10 

A Kumar N Shah K B Patel R Vishwakarma Hearing screening in a tertiary care hospital in IndiaJ Cl Diag Res2015933439

11 

H K Sanju M Choudhury Neo-natal hearing Screening should be mandatory medical regime in IndiaI Ind J Anat Surg Br2017348688



jats-html.xsl

© 2020 Published by Innovative Publication. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (creativecommons.org)