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Indian Journal of Clinical Anatomy and Physiology

Measurement of 2D:4D ratios in patients with major depressive disorders: A pilot study

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Research Article

Author Details : Saravanakumar Jeevanandam, K Muthu Prathibha*

Volume : 6, Issue : 3, Year : 2019

Article Page : 344-347

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Introduction: Digit ratio or 2D:4D ratio is a sexually dimorphic trait. It is a proxy marker of prenatal
androgen exposure and is negatively correlated to prenatal androgens especially, testosterone. Literature
search revealed significant correlations between digit ratios and various physiological, psychological or
performance traits in adulthood.
Objectives: The pilot study was conducted to measure 2D:4D ratios of patients with Major Depressive
Disorder (MDD) and to compare it with normal (non-depressed) individuals and also to evaluate the
correlation between digit ratios & depression scores.
Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in adults of age group belonging to 25-40
years with MDD (Group 1: n=30), from a tertiary care centre for Psychiatry. Using digital vernier calipers
2D:4D ratio was measured. Diagnosis of depression was done by the psychiatrist using DSM –IV criteria
and depression scores were calculated by Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS). Depression scores
using Beck’s Depression Inventory and digit ratios were measured in age and sex matched healthy controls
(Group 2: n=30).
Results: The Mean ratios of Group 1 (0.9659 0.04161) was found to be lower than Group 2 (0.9788
0.0371). Using standard cutoffs, Group 1 was divided into Low and High digit ratios. The proportion
of Group 1 patients with high ratios (84%) was significantly more than those with than low ratios (16%)
(p<0> Discussion: The outcomes of the present study were synchronous with reports of higher incidence of
depression in females, nationally and globally. This was concurrent with the other reports of the previous
studies. This would help us to conduct the future studies even on large study population.

Keywords: Digit ratio, 2D:4D ratio, Prenatal testosterone, Depression, Vernier Caliper, Beck’s Inventory.

Doi : 10.18231/j.ijcap.2019.075

How to cite : Jeevanandam S, Prathibha K M, Measurement of 2D:4D ratios in patients with major depressive disorders: A pilot study. Indian J Clin Anat Physiol 2019;6(3):344-347

Copyright © 2019 by author(s) and Indian J Clin Anat Physiol. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC 4.0) (