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IP Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dermatology


Exigency of ocular complications of systemic lupus erythematosus


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Review Article

Author Details : P K Kaviarasan*

Volume : 6, Issue : 2, Year : 2020

Article Page : 105-112


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Abstract

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an auto immune connective tissue disease which affects all organs in
the body including eye. Ocular manifestations vary with underlying severity of the SLE had beed observed
in 30% of cases. Ocular complications of SLE are commonly seen in advanced but uncontrolled and patients
on irregular treatment. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is the most common form of ocular complication of
SLE, clinically manifests as dry eyes, lack of tear production which can be managed with artificial tear
preparations. Clinical severity varies from mild asymptomatic red eyes and acute painful conjunctivitis,
retrobulbar pain, orbital cellulitis, retinal artery occlusion and very severe cases leads to blindness which
is often irreversible. Scleritis is an inflammatory complication of sclera which is as common as episcleritis
in SLE. It can be classified in to anterior scleritis and posterior scleritis. Retinal involvement is a rare
devastating complication of SLE. The prevalence of retinal disease in SLE accounts for 10% of cases.
Mild forms of retinopathy are usually asymptomatic. In acute cases of SLE, the retinal changes manifests
as defects in the visual field, distortion or floaters and sudden loss of vision. Anti-inflammatory agents,
corticosteroids, anti-malarials play a major role in the management of long-standing complications of
SLE. Immune complex deposition of antibodies against various structures of eye manifest differently.
Early suspicion, prompt treatment, periodic monitoring of disease activity, early ophthalmic assessment
of fundus, retina will bring down the incidence of SLE associated blindness. Early intervention of immune
complex mediated Vasculitis involving eyes will prevent brain stem and central Nervous system (CNS)
complications will bring down the mortality.

Keywords: Autoimmune, Blindness, Lupus, Ophthalmic, Red eyes.

Doi : 10.18231/j.ijced.2020.023

How to cite : Kaviarasan P K, Exigency of ocular complications of systemic lupus erythematosus. IP Indian J Clin Exp Dermatol 2020;6(2):105-112

Copyright © 2020 by author(s) and IP Indian J Clin Exp Dermatol. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC 4.0) (creativecommons.org)