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IP Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dermatology

Clinico-histopathological correlation of leprosy in western region of Nepal-A pioneer pilot study

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Author Details : Kumar Pokhrel, Parajuli S, Shah M, Sushma Subedi

Volume : 2, Issue : 3, Year : 2016

Article Page : 93-97

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Background: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae disease affecting mainly cutaneous and peripheral nervous system. This entity expresses with a wide array of clinical manifestations and may mimic variety of disparate diseases, therefore is difficult to diagnose clinically, so for the adequate treatment and better prognosis, the diagnosis must be made early and it should be accurate, therefore clinic-pathological correlation is extremely important. Hence, the present study was conducted to correlate different types of leprosy clinically and histopathologically.
Objectives: To analyze different histological types of leprosy, correlate histopathological diagnosis with clinical diagnosis and study the uniformity of clinical and histological findings in the diagnosis of leprosy.
Methodology: This study was conducted on 21 biopsy samples received in Department of Dermatology, Nepalgunj Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Nepalgunj over a period of one year from December 1, 2014 to December 31, 2015. All the clinically diagnosed new skin lesions (clinical classifications noted) were subjected for biopsy; tissue specimen were fixed in 10% formalin and sent for histopathological analysis. 5 micron sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin for morphological assessment and with modified Fite-Farcao stain for identification of the lepra bacilli. Ridley and Jopling classification was applied for histopathological taxonomy. Data was analyzed using SPSS software version 15.0 and kappa test was applied to evaluate the concordance results.
Results: The present study comprised of 21 patients, 12 were males (57.1%) and 9 females (42.9%) with a male: female ratio of 1.33:1. Majority of the patients were between 31 to 40 years of age. Based on histopathology, 14 (66.7%) patients had Tuberculoid leprosy (TT); 5 patients had Borderline Lepromatous (BL) leprosy; 1 (4.8%) had Borderline Tuberculoid (BT) leprosy and Lepromatous Leprosy (LL) each. Out of the 21 patients included in the study, 16 (76.1%) presented a clinical suspicion of paucibacillary leprosy and 5 (23.8%) of multibacillary leprosy. Maximum clinico-histopathological correlation was seen in BL (100%), followed by TT (84.6%), LL (50%) and 0% in BT. Overall clinico-histopathological agreement was seen in 15 (71.4%) cases and disagreement in 6 (28.7%) cases.
Conclusion: Clinical and histopathological diagnosis of leprosy is imperative for proper treatment and prevention of complications.

Leprosy, Histopathology, Mycobacterium leprae

How to cite : Pokhrel K, Parajuli S, Shah M, Subedi S, Clinico-histopathological correlation of leprosy in western region of Nepal-A pioneer pilot study. IP Indian J Clin Exp Dermatol 2016;2(3):93-97

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