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Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology

Prevalence of xerophthalmia and coverage of vitamin A prophylaxis programme in slums of rural and urban communities amongst children less than 6 years of age

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Research Article

Author Details : Radhika Paranjpe, Varsha Manade*, Neha Kulkarni, Saurabh Oza, Madhuri Khandelwal

Volume : 5, Issue : 4, Year : 2019

Article Page : 466-469

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Purpose: To determine the prevalence of xerophthalmia in a high risk age group of ch ildren less than
6 years of age and to assess the coverage of prophylaxis so that the efficiency of vitamin A prophylaxis
programme can be analysed.
Design: A cross sectional study was conducted from 15th June 2015 to 15th August 2015.
Materials and Methods: 442 children aged 0-6 years were enrolled in a cross-sectiona l study from
randomly selected anganwadis in 3 urban and rural communities. Parents/caregivers were interviewed
about night blindness and other symptoms of xerophthalmia, consumption of vitamin A rich foods, history
of vitamin A supplementation till date of examination, measles vaccination status. Children were examined
for manifestations of xerophthalmia and were classified according to their ocular signs as per WHO criteria.
Results: Out of 442 children 232 were male and 210 were female. Out of 442 children, 403 (93.73%)
were given vitamin A supplements by the age of 6 years. Out of 442 children, none complained of day
or night blindness. N o child had Bitot’s spots, corneal xerosis, scars or keratomalacia, but 6 children had
bilateral conjunctival xerosis. The prevalence rate of conjunctival xerosis is 1.35%. The prevalence rate of
xerophthalmia according to its ocular manifestations as given by WHO, is 0%.
Conclusion: A prevalence rate of xerophthalmia 0% is indicative of the success of the vitamin A
prophylaxis programme and coverage of vitamin A prophylaxis 93.73% can be attributed to the efficient
implementation of the programme by the anganwadi workers.

Keywords: Vitamin A, Xerophthalmia, Night blindness, Prevalence.

Doi : 10.18231/j.ijceo.2019.111

How to cite : Paranjpe R, Manade V, Kulkarni N, Oza S, Khandelwal M, Prevalence of xerophthalmia and coverage of vitamin A prophylaxis programme in slums of rural and urban communities amongst children less than 6 years of age. Indian J Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2019;5(4):466-469

Copyright © 2019 by author(s) and Indian J Clin Exp Ophthalmol. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0) (