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Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology

Comparison of dry eyes tests among Smokers and Non-smokers: Does smoking predispose to dry eye?

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Research Article

Author Details : Parvezalam Tank, Uma Kulkarni*

Volume : 5, Issue : 4, Year : 2019

Article Page : 578-584

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Introduction: Smoking tobacco is a risk factor for ocular disorders including dry eyes. This study
correlates dry eye tests among smokers and non-smokers, type of smoking and smoking load.
Materials and Methods: Dry eye tests were conducted on 80 smokers and 80 age matched non-smokers
after ethical approval and written informed consent.
Results: Smoker and non-smoker groups were comparable (Mean age: 48.98 and 49.03 years). All were
males. Majority of smokers belonged to the lower socioeconomic status and had outdoor professions.
Abnormal ities in dry eye scores (DEQ-5), corneal sensitivity, Schirmer’s 1 and 2, Tear film break up time
(TBUT) and corneal staining were significantly more among smokers (p<0> eye score (9.75; 3.42), Schirmer’s 1 (18.95 ; 21.51mm), Schirmer’s 2 (19.16; 21.38 mm) and TBUT (8.47
; 12.26) were significantly more affected in smokers (p<0> corneal sensation, Schirmer’s 1 and 2, and TBUT were significantly more in higher pack years (>40,000 )
than in lower (20,000 to 40,000) (p<0> load. Abnormalities in tear meniscus height, corneal sensation, Schirmer’s 2 and TBUT were significantly
more among cigarette smokers (<0> for abnormal test results with higher smoking load (Pack-years>40,000; R2 = 0.529). Severe corneal
staining showed goblet cell loss and squamous metaplasia, however this sample size was too small for
statistical inference.
Conclusion: Dry eye test abnormalities correlate significantly with smoking, higher smoking load and type
of smoking.

Keywords: Smoking, Cigarette, Bidi, Packyears, Dry eye tests, Schirmer’s test, Tearfilm break up time (TBUT).

Doi : 10.18231/j.ijceo.2019.132

How to cite : Tank P, Kulkarni U , Comparison of dry eyes tests among Smokers and Non-smokers: Does smoking predispose to dry eye?. Indian J Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2019;5(4):578-584

Copyright © 2019 by author(s) and Indian J Clin Exp Ophthalmol. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC 4.0) (