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IP International Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicological Sciences

Morphometric analysis of facial soft tissue thickness for sexual dimorphism: A cone beam computed tomography study

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Research Article

Author Details : Manasa Anand Meundi*, Chaya M David, Asad Mahmood

Volume : 4, Issue : 2, Year : 2019

Article Page : 60-67

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Introduction: Facial Reconstruction is the final step attempted in forensics for the purpose of human identification wherein the facial structures are recreated over the anonymous skull to make it identifiable by the public. Population-specific facial soft tissue thickness (STT) data is essential to obtain acceptable results in facial reconstruction. Tissue thickness have wide variations owing to the influence of factors such as age, sex and race of the individuals. To this end, the aim of the present study was to provide a set of STT averages for south Indian population and to evaluate the influence of age and sex on STT averages.
Material and Methods: CBCT scans of 307 (142 males and 165 females) south Indian subjects aged 18-80yrs were selected and STT was estimated at 34 landmarks using Ondemand 3D software.
Results: STT averages were obtained. An increasing trend in STTs with advancing age was observed in both males and females. Mean STT was significantly larger in males than females at all the landmarks except at gonion. Seven variables (nasion, subnasale, pogonion, zygion, infraM2, midramus and midmandibular border) were found to be the best predictors of sex and could identify sex of 83% subjects.
Conclusion: Present study has provided mean facial soft tissue thickness values of adult south Indian population at suitable reference points. The derived discriminant function equations will be useful in sex determination of the unknown. STT along with their age and sex related variations will be valuable in forensic facial reconstructions, plastic surgeries and in anthropology.

Keywords: Sex determination, Forensic facial reconstruction, Facial soft tissue thickness, Human identification, Cone beam computed tomography, South Indian population.

Doi : 10.18231/j.ijfmts.2019.014

How to cite : Meundi M A, David C M, Mahmood A, Morphometric analysis of facial soft tissue thickness for sexual dimorphism: A cone beam computed tomography study. IP Int J Forensic Med Toxicol Sci 2019;4(2):60-67

Copyright © 2019 by author(s) and IP Int J Forensic Med Toxicol Sci. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC 4.0) (