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Indian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology


Crigler najjar syndrome: A systematic outline


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Article Type : Review Article

Author Details: Amol Bhalchandra Deore*

Volume : 6

Issue : 3

Online ISSN : 2393-9087

Print ISSN : 2393-9079

Article First Page : 75

Article End Page : 78


Abstract

Crigler-Najjar Syndrome (CNS) is a rare genetic condition characterized by non-hemolytic unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. It is caused by mutations in the UGT1A1 gene which codes for the enzyme uridine diphosphate glucoronosyl transferase-1, required for the conjugation and further elimination of bilirubin from the body. Affected individuals are usually asymptomatic apart from the jaundice and investigations reveal isolated indirect hyperbilirubinemia. It can be conveniently diagnosed by evaluating the response to phenobarbital in terms of decrease in bilirubin levels. Genetic testing of the UGT1A1 gene for mutations is the investigative clincher. The hallmark outcome of Crigler-Najjar syndrome is a determined yellowing of the skin, mucous membranes and the sclera of eye. There are two patterns of this disorder: Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I, characterized by a nearly complete lack of enzyme activity and severe symptoms; and Crigler-Najjar syndrome type II, characterized by inadequate enzyme activity and milder symptoms. Both forms are inherited as autosomal recessive characters and are caused by faults or mutations of the UGT1A1 gene. Treatment is engaged toward dropping the level of unconjugated bilirubin in the blood. Early treatment is vibrant in Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I to prevent the development of encephalopathy during the first few months of life. Because Crigler-Najjar syndrome type II is milder and responds to phenobarbital, treatment is different. The purpose of the current review article is to emphasize on causes, types, clinical symptoms, autosomal pattern, complications, management and future direction for treatment of Crigler-Najjar syndrome.

Keywords: Hyperbilirubinemia, Phenobarbitone, UGT1A1 gene, Bilirubin, Jaundice, Mutations

Doi No:-10.18231/j.ijpp.2019.017