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Journal of Dental Specialities


Periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight: a case control study


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Author Details : Mallika Sethi, Sumit Malhotra, Mathai Thomas, DVG Naidu

Volume : 4, Issue : 2, Year : 2016

Article Page : 131-134


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Abstract

Introduction: The influence of subject-based and environmental factors on the balance between the subgingival microbial challenge and the host response in periodontal diseases illustrates the intimate link between oral and systemic health. From this stems the hypothesis that the persistent gram-negative challenge and associated inflammatory sequelae in periodontal disease may have consequences extending beyond the periodontal tissues themselves. This article addresses the design of a case-control study to examine the relationship between preterm low birth weight and maternal periodontal disease.
Materials and Methods: A case control study design was chosen including postpartum women between the age group of 18- 35 years of age. Cases were mothers delivering an infant weighing < 2,500g before 37 weeks' gestation and controls as mothers delivering an infant > 2,500g after 37 weeks. A full mouth periodontal examination was performed and corroborated by one examiner. The clinical parameters measured included plaque index, gingival index, pocket probing depth and clinical attachment level. Data was analyzed with Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Student t-test and Mann Whitney U test.
Results: There was statistically no significant difference in the mean age between the case group and the control group. There was a strong association between the socioeconomic status, gingival status, plaque levels, pocket probing depth, clinical attachment level and the incidence of preterm low birth weight.
Conclusion: The data from the present study, thus, shows an association between maternal periodontal disease and the risk of pre-term low birth weight infant.

Keywords:
Periodontal Disease, Preterm Low Birth Weight, Clinical Attachment Level, Pocket Probing Depth, Socio-economic Status, Gingival Status

How to cite : Sethi M, Malhotra S, Thomas M, Naidu D, Periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight: a case control study. J Dent Spec 2016;4(2):131-134

Copyright © 2016 by author(s) and J Dent Spec. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0) (creativecommons.org)